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Rapid Rescue Treatment with Diazepam Nasal Spray Leads to Faster Seizure Cluster Termination in Epilepsy: An Exploratory Post Hoc Cohort Analysis.

Neurology and Therapy 2024 January 5
INTRODUCTION: Although prompt treatment of status epilepticus is standard of care, the effect of timing of rescue therapy administration for seizure clusters in epilepsy remains unknown. Seizure clusters are a rare but clinically important condition, and benzodiazepines are the cornerstone rescue therapy for seizure clusters in epilepsy. We characterized temporal patterns from a large dataset of treated seizure clusters in the safety study of diazepam nasal spray.

METHODS: This post hoc analysis used timing data of treated seizure clusters recorded by care partners and patients in seizure diaries during a 1-year safety study. Data analysis used time from seizure start to administration of diazepam.

RESULTS: From 4466 observations, 3225 had data meeting criteria for analysis. Overall, median times from seizure start to dose administration, dose administration to seizure termination, and total seizure duration were 2, 3, and 7 min, respectively. In seizure clusters treated in < 5 min (median 1.0 min), median time from dose to seizure termination was 2.0 min, and median total seizure duration was 4.0 min. Among seizure clusters treated in ≥ 5 min (median 10.0 min), median time to seizure termination was 10.0 min, and median total seizure duration was 23.0 min. Previously published safety results reported that over a mean participation of 1.5 years, 82.2% of patients had ≥ 1 treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) irrespective of relationship to treatment, including 30.7% with serious TEAEs; 18.4% had TEAEs deemed at least possibly related to the study drug, none of which were serious. There were no events of cardiorespiratory depression.

CONCLUSION: Echoing the importance of early use of benzodiazepines in status epilepticus, the findings from this exploratory analysis of patients with refractory epilepsy and frequent seizure clusters identify a potential benefit of early diazepam nasal spray treatment leading to faster seizure resolution within the seizure cluster. Trial Registration Information: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02721069 ( https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02721069 ).

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