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Key Cell Types and Biomarkers in Heart Failure Identified through Analysis of Single-Cell and Bulk RNA Sequencing Data.

Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome resulting from various cardiac diseases and a significant medical issue worldwide. Although the role of inflammation in HF pathogenesis is well-known, the specific cell types and regulatory molecules involved remain poorly understood. Here, we identified key cell types and novel biomarkers via an analysis of single-cell and bulk RNA sequencing data obtained from patients with two major HF types of ischemic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy. Myeloid cells were identified as the primary cell population involved in HF through cellular fraction and gene set enrichment analysis. Additionally, differential analysis of myeloid cells revealed crosstalk between cellular communication and cytokine-regulated immune responses in HF, with the MIF pathway emerging as a crucial immune regulatory pathway. The CD74/CXCR4 receptor complex in myeloid cell subgroup M φ 2 was significantly upregulated, potentially acting as a crucial regulator in HF. Upon receiving the MIF signal molecule, the CD74/CXCR4 receptor can activate NF- κ B signaling to produce chemokines and thereby enhance the inflammatory response. CD74 and CXCR4 may serve as biomarkers and treatment targets for HF.

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