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Clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis: epidemiology, transmission, clinical features, morbidity, diagnosis, treatment, and control.

SUMMARY Clonorchis sinensis , Opisthorchis viverrini , and Opisthorchis felineus are important liver flukes that cause a considerable public health burden in eastern Asia, southeastern Asia, and eastern Europe, respectively. The life cycles are complex, involving humans, animal reservoirs, and two kinds of intermediate hosts. An interplay of biological, cultural, ecological, economic, and social factors drives transmission. Chronic infections are associated with liver and biliary complications, most importantly cholangiocarcinoma. With regard to diagnosis, stool microscopy is widely used in epidemiologic surveys and for individual diagnosis. Immunologic techniques are employed for screening purposes, and molecular techniques facilitate species differentiation in reference laboratories. The mainstay of control is preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel, usually combined with behavioral change through information, education and communication, and environmental control. Tribendimidine, a drug registered in the People's Republic of China for soil-transmitted helminth infections, shows potential against both C. sinensis and O. viverrini and, hence, warrants further clinical development. Novel control approaches include fish vaccine and biological control. Considerable advances have been made using multi-omics which may trigger the development of new interventions. Pressing research needs include mapping the current distribution, disentangling the transmission, accurately estimating the disease burden, and developing new diagnostic and treatment tools, which would aid to optimize control and elimination measures.

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