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Value of 68 Ga-FAPI-04 and 18 F-FDG PET/CT in Early Prediction of Pathologic Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Locally Advanced Gastric Cancer.

This prospective study investigated whether PET parameters from 18 F-FDG and 68 Ga-fibroblast activation protein inhibitor (FAPI)-04 PET/CT can predict a pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) early in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer (LAGC). Methods: The study included 28 patients with LAGC who underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT and 68 Ga-FAPI-04 PET/CT at baseline and after 1 cycle of NAC. PET parameters including SUV and tumor-to-background ratio (TBR), as well as the change rate of SUV and TBR, were recorded. Patients were classified as major or minor pathologic responders according to postoperative pathology findings. We compared the PET parameters between the 2 pathologic response groups and different treatment regimens and analyzed their predictive performance for tumor pathologic response. Results: Major pathologic responders had significantly lower 68 Ga-FAPI change rates (percentage SUVmax [%SUVmax ], percentage SUVpeak [%SUVpeak ], and percentage TBR [%TBR]) than minor pathologic responders. Among the PET parameters, 68 Ga-FAPI %SUVmax (area under the curve, 0.856; P = 0.009), %SUVpeak (area under the curve, 0.811; P = 0.022), and %TBR (area under the curve, 0.864; P = 0.007) were significant parameters for early prediction of pathologic response to NAC in LAGC; they had the same predictive accuracy of 89.29%, with the thresholds of decrease to at least 52.43%, 60.46%, and 52.96%, respectively. In addition, 68 Ga-FAPI %SUVmax and %TBR showed significant differences between the different treatment regimens. Conclusion: In this preliminary study, 68 Ga-FAPI-04 PET change rate parameters were preferable to 18 F-FDG in predicting pathologic response to NAC at an early stage in LAGC. 68 Ga-FAPI %SUVmax and %TBR may be better predictors of therapeutic response between different treatment regimens. These findings may help optimize the treatment for patients with LAGC.

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