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Oral manifestations of amyloidosis and the diagnostic applicability of oral tissue biopsy.

BACKGROUND: Amyloidosis exhibits a variable spectrum of systemic signs and oral manifestations that can be difficult to diagnose. This study aimed to characterize the clinical, demographic, and microscopic features of amyloidosis in the oral cavity.

METHODS: This collaborative study involved three Brazilian oral pathology centers and described cases with a confirmed diagnosis of amyloidosis on available oral tissue biopsies. Clinical data were obtained from medical records. H&E, Congo-red, and immunohistochemically stained slides were analyzed.

RESULTS: Twenty-six oral biopsies from 23 individuals (65.2% males; mean age: 59.6 years) were included. Oral involvement was the first sign of the disease in 67.0% of cases. Two patients had no clinical manifestation in the oral mucosa, although the histological analysis confirmed amyloid deposition. Amyloid deposits were distributed in perivascular (88.0%), periacinar and periductal (80.0%), perineurial (80.0%), endoneurial (33.3%), perimuscular (88.2%), intramuscular (94.1%), and subepithelial (35.3%) sites as well as around fat cells (100.0%). Mild/moderate inflammation was found in 65.4% of cases and 23.1% had giant cells.

CONCLUSIONS: Amyloid deposits were consistently found in oral tissues, exhibiting distinct deposition patterns. Oral biopsy is less invasive than internal organ biopsy and enables the reliable identification of amyloid deposits even in the absence of oral manifestations. These findings corroborate the relevance of oral biopsy for the diagnosis of amyloidosis.

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