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Molecular mechanisms of tumour necrosis factor signalling via TNF receptor 1 and TNF receptor 2 in the tumour microenvironment.

Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a primary mediator of inflammatory processes by facilitating cell death, immune cell activation and triggering of inflammation. In the cancer context, research has revealed TNF as a multifaceted cytokine that can be both pro- or anti-tumorigenic depending on what context is observed. We explore the plethora of ways that TNF and its receptors manipulate the functional and phenotypic characteristics in the tumour microenvironment (TME) on both tumour cells and immune cells, promoting either tumour elimination or progression. Here, we discuss the latest cutting-edge TNF-focused biologics currently in clinical translation that modifies the TME to derive greater immune responses and therapeutic outcomes, and further give perspectives on the future of targeting TNF in the context of cancer by emerging technological approaches.

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