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Comparison of Marginal Adaptation, Surface Hardness and Bond Strength of Resected and Retrofilled Calcium Silicate-based Cements Used in Endodontic Surgery: An In Vitro Study.

AIMS: This study compared the effects of orthograde and retrograde methods on marginal adaptation, surface hardness, and push-out bond strength (POBS) of three calcium silicate-based used in endodontic surgery.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety single-rooted human mandibular premolars were randomly assigned into six groups ( n = 15/group): groups I and II, ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) with orthograde and retrograde methods; groups III and IV, Biodentine (BD) with orthograde and retrograde methods; groups V and VI, iRoot BP Plus (BP-RPM) with orthograde and retrograde methods. After obturation, the apical 3 mm of each root was sectioned into two 1-mm-thick root slices and evaluated for marginal adaptation using a scanning electron microscope, surface hardness using Vickers hardness tester and POBS using a universal testing machine.

RESULTS: Orthograde placement had a higher maximum gap width than retrograde placement ( p < 0.05), but there was no significant difference among the tested materials ( p > 0.05). Biodentine exhibited lower surface hardness than ProRoot MTA and iRoot BP Plus ( p < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between ProRoot MTA and iRoot BP Plus ( p > 0.05). Orthograde placement had higher POBS compared with retrograde placement ( p < 0.05). Biodentine had higher POBS than iRoot BP Plus ( p < 0.05), but no significant difference from ProRoot MTA ( p > 0.05). The failure mode was mainly mixed for all the tested materials regardless of material type or placement technique.

CONCLUSION: The retrograde method had better marginal adaptation; however, the orthograde method provided better dislodgement resistance. Biodentine had lower surface hardness than MTA and iRoot BP Plus with both techniques, whereas iRoot BP Plus demonstrated lower dislodging resistance than BD.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The current findings suggest that orthograde technique, a simpler periapical surgery, with ProRoot MTA provides potentially better surface hardness and POBS than BD and iRoot BP Plus in single-canal teeth.

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