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The Effect of Rosmarinus Officinalis as a Potential Root Canal Medication on the Viability of Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

AIM: The objective of the current study was to assess and compare the impact of triple antibiotic paste (TAP) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2 ) with rosmarinic acid (RA) on the viability of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dental pulp stem cells were isolated and characterized using flow cytometry. The cells were treated with (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, and 5 mg/mL) concentrations for TAP and Ca(OH)2 and (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 µM) concentrations for RA. Cell viability was evaluated after 3 days, with cell proliferation further analyzed over 3, 5, and 7 days utilizing the MTT assay. The optical density (OD) was quantified at 570 nm, subsequently enabling the determination of corrected OD and cell viability. ANOVA followed by the post hoc Tuckey test evaluated the statistical significance at p < 0.05.

RESULTS: Following the cell viability test, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/mL of TAP and Ca(OH)2 showed no significant difference for DPSCs compared to the control group. While dosages of 1 mg/mL, 2.5 mg/mL, and 5 mg/mL significantly reduced cell viability ( p < 0.05). However, 6.25 µM and 12.5 µM concentrations of RA showed a significant increase in cell viability compared to untreated cells, 25 µM and 50 µM concentrations showed no significant difference compared to untreated cells while 100 µM concentration showed a decrease in cell viability ( p < 0.05). Moreover, RA at a concentration of 12.5 µM exhibited a significant enhancement in cell proliferation rates after 5 and 7 days.

CONCLUSION: Rosmarinic acid showed a significant increase in cell viability when used at 6.25 and 12.5 µM concentrations compared to TAP and CA(OH)2 .

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The assessment of cytotoxicity associated with bioactive compounds like RA, which processes antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, holds importance. This evaluation could pave the way for novel intracanal medicaments that enhance the regenerative potential of DPSCs.

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