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A comprehensive overview of surgical and transcatheter therapies to treat tricuspid regurgitation in patients with heart failure.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The unique pathophysiologic considerations of severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) have led to advancements in surgical and transcatheter treatments. The purpose of this review is to highlight the current surgical and transcatheter tricuspid valve interventions (TTVI) to functional TR.

RECENT FINDINGS: Surgical repair with ring annuloplasty consistently demonstrates better outcomes than surgical replacement or other repair approaches. However, surgical uptake of TR correction remains relatively low, and operative mortality rates are still high owing to multiple comorbidities and advanced tricuspid valve disease/right ventricular dysfunction at time of referral. Pivotal trials for tricuspid transcatheter edge-to-edge repair (T-TEER) and transcatheter TV replacement (TTVR) indicate improved quality of life compared to medical therapy alone for high-surgical-risk patients with severe symptomatic TR. Trials are underway to assess caval valve implantation (CAVI), which holds hope for many severe TR patients who are not ideal candidates for T-TEER or orthotopic TTVR. Peri-procedural optimization of right ventricular function remains critical to promote both device success and patient outcomes.

SUMMARY: Clinical outcomes after surgical TV intervention are poor, often due to intervening late in the disease course of TR. TTVI covers a treatment gap for patients deemed inoperable or high-surgical-risk, but earlier referral for TV interventions is still important prior to patients developing multiorgan dysfunction from chronic untreated TR.

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