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Test and Treat for Prediabetes: A Review of the Health Effects of Prediabetes and the Role of Screening and Prevention.

The term prediabetes describes blood glucose levels above the normal range but below the threshold to diagnose type 2 diabetes. Several population health initiatives encourage a test and treat approach for prediabetes. In this approach, screening and identification of individuals with prediabetes should be followed by prompt referral to structured lifestyle modification programs or pharmacologic interventions that have been shown to prevent or delay the progression to type 2 diabetes in clinical trials. Here we provide a critical review of evidence for this test and treat approach by examining health outcomes associated with prediabetes and the availability and effectiveness of lifestyle modification approaches that target prediabetes. We also describe current limitations to the reach and uptake of evidence-based treatment options for prediabetes. Finally, we highlight lessons learned from identifying and labeling other preconditions to consider challenges and opportunities that may arise with increasing awareness of prediabetes as part of routine preventive care. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health , Volume 45 is April 2024. Please see https://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

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