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Exploring the Mechanistic Link Between Obesity and Heart Failure.

Current Diabetes Reports 2023 December 16
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Among subtypes of cardiovascular disease, obesity has a potent and unique association with heart failure (HF) that is unexplained by traditional cardiovascular risk mediators. The concomitant rise in the prevalence of obesity and HF necessitates better understanding of their relationship to develop effective prevention and treatment strategies. The purpose of this review is to provide mechanistic insight regarding the link between obesity and HF by elucidating the direct and indirect pathways linking the two conditions.

RECENT FINDINGS: Several direct pathophysiologic mechanisms contribute to HF risk in individuals with excess weight, including hemodynamic alterations, neurohormonal activation, hormonal effects of dysfunctional adipose tissue, ectopic fat deposition with resulting lipotoxicity and microvascular dysfunction. Obesity further predisposes to HF indirectly through causal associations with hypertension, dyslipidemia, and most importantly, diabetes via insulin resistance. Low levels of physical activity and fitness further influence HF risk in the context of obesity. These various processes lead to myocardial injury and cardiac remodeling that are reflected by abnormalities in cardiac biomarkers and cardiac function on myocardial imaging. Understanding and addressing obesity-associated HF is a pressing clinical and public health challenge which can be informed by a deeper understanding of the complex pathways linking these two conditions together.

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