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Psychometric Properties and Factor Structure of the Spanish Version of Technostress Scale (RED/TIC) in Ecuadorian Teachers During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

BACKGROUND: Although the use of technology is a trend, since the COVID-19 pandemic, its use has been exacerbated, especially in educational processes, causing techno-stress among teachers.

PURPOSE: In order to contribute to the lack of validated and adapted instruments in Latin America, this study aimed to analyze the psychometric properties and factorial structure of the Spanish version of the technostress scale in a large sample of Ecuadorian teachers.

METHODS: A non-probabilistic intentional sample of 2850 teachers (mean age 40 years, SD= 9.65; 65% female) from various schools throughout the Ecuadorian territory was surveyed online using a cross-sectional design. Data analysis included exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), factorial invariance, assessment of internal consistency, sex differences in technostress scale scores and convergent validity.

RESULTS: The EFA yielded a structure of four factors: skepticism, fatigue, anxiety and inefficiency. Through CFA, the hierarchical model that included a general factor and four nested factors had a better fit, and that model remained invariant across sex, age and public and private institutions. Total omega value (ω) was 0.962 for the total scale and hierarchical omega values (ωh) were 0.886 for the general factor, as well as 0.30, 0.22, 0.12 and 0.21 for the respective nested factors (skepticism, fatigue, anxiety and inefficiency). Moreover, the Resources, Experiences, Demands for Information and Communication Technologies (RED/TIC) scores were significantly higher among women, although effect sizes of comparison of those sex differences were very small. Finally, the RED/TIC scores correlated with the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21).

CONCLUSION: The RED/TIC scale has adequate psychometric properties in primary and high school teachers, and its use in that population is supported, which provides a valuable tool for the evaluation and detection of technostress in teachers and facilitates the investigation of this multifactorial phenomenon in Latin America.

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