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Sleep in pediatric neuromuscular disorders.

Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is prevalent among children with neuromuscular disorders (NMD). The combination of respiratory muscle weakness, altered drive, and chest wall distortion due to scoliosis make sleep a stressful state in this population. Symptomatology can range from absent to snoring, nocturnal awakenings, morning headaches, and excessive daytime sleepiness. Sequelae of untreated SDB includes cardiovascular effects, metabolic derangements, and neurocognitive concerns which can be compounded by those innate to the NMD. The clinician should have a low threshold for obtaining polysomnography and recognize the nuances of individual disorders due to disproportionately impacted muscle groups such as hypoventilation in ambulating patients from diaphragm weakness. Non-invasive or invasive ventilation are the mainstay of treatment. In this review we explore the diagnosis and treatment of SDB in children with various NMD.

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