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Idiopathic Hypersomnia and Kleine-Levin Syndrome: Primary Disorders of Hypersomnolence Beyond Narcolepsy.

Daytime sleepiness is common amongst children and adolescents. Inadequate sleep duration, inappropriate school start times, and the delay in sleep phase of adolescence may all contribute. Nocturnal sleep disruption due to sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea or restless legs syndrome/periodic limb movement disorder may also lead to daytime sleepiness. Profound sleepiness however, when occurring in the setting of adequate sleep duration, is rare amongst children and adolescents and may prompt consideration of a central disorder of hypersomnolence (CDH). Narcolepsy is the archetypal and most studied form of CDH and a detailed review of the presentation, evaluation, treatment of narcolepsy is included separately in this edition of Seminars in Pediatric Neurology. In addition to narcolepsy, 2 other forms of primary CDH exist, idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) and Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS). Onset of IH and KLS occurs most frequently during the pediatric age range and presentation may include signs of encephalopathy in addition to hypersomnolence. As such, they are of particular relevance to pediatric neurology and associated fields. Unfortunately, when compared to narcolepsy little is known about IH and KLS, at both the physiologic and clinical level. This review will focus on the presentation, evaluation, and management of idiopathic hypersomnia and Kleine-Levin syndrome in the pediatric population.

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