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Disparities in acute myeloid leukemia treatments and outcomes.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize different contributors to survival disparities in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. The focus is set on African-American (hereafter referred to as Black) patients, with separate consideration of self-reported race and ancestry. It aims to also highlight the interconnectivity of the different features that impact on despair survival.

RECENT FINDINGS: The main themes in the literature covered in this article include the impact of social deprivation, clinical trial enrollment and biobanking, structural racism and ancestry-associated differences in genetic features on survival outcomes.

SUMMARY: An increasing number of studies have not only shown persistent survival disparities between Black and non-Hispanic White AML patients, but uncovered a multitude of contributors that have additive adverse effects on patient outcomes. In addition to potentially modifiable features, such as socioeconomic factors and trial enrollment odds that require urgent interventions, there is emerging data on differences in disease biology with respect to genetic ancestry, including frequencies of known AML-driver mutations and their associated prognostic impact.

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