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Risk Factors for Hospitalization and Effect of Immunosuppression on Clinical Outcomes Among an Urban Cohort of Patients With Mpox.

BACKGROUND: During the 2022 mpox outbreak most patients were managed as outpatients, but some required hospitalization. Uncontrolled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been identified as a risk factor for severe mpox.

METHODS: Patients with mpox diagnosed or treated within the Johns Hopkins Health System between 1 June and 15 December 2022 were included. The primary outcome of interest was risk of hospitalization. Demographic features, comorbid conditions, treatment, and clinical outcomes were determined.

RESULTS: A total of 353 patients were tested or treated for mpox; 100 had mpox diagnosed or treated (median age, 35.3 years; 97.0% male; 57.0% black and 10.0% Hispanic; 46.0% people with HIV [PWH]). Seventeen patients (17.0%) required hospitalization, 10 of whom were PWH. Age >40 years, race, ethnicity, HIV status, insurance status, and body mass index >30 (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) were not associated with hospitalization. Eight of 9 patients (88.9%) with immunosuppression were hospitalized. Immunosuppression was associated with hospitalization in univariate (odds ratio, 69.3 [95% confidence interval, 7.8-619.7]) and adjusted analysis (adjusted odds ratio, 94.8 [8.5-1060.1]). Two patients (11.8%) who were hospitalized required intensive care unit admission and died; both had uncontrolled HIV infection and CD4 T-cell counts <50/µL. Median cycle threshold values for the first positive mpox virus sample did not differ between those who were hospitalized and those who were not.

CONCLUSIONS: Immunosuppression was a significant risk factor for hospitalization with mpox. PWH with CD4 T-cell counts <50/µL are at high risk of death due to mpox infection. Patients who are immunosuppressed should be considered for early and aggressive treatment of mpox, given the increased risk of hospitalization.

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