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Mechanism and Therapeutic Prospect of miRNAs in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are the smallest class of noncoding RNAs, which widely exist in animals and plants. They can inhibit translation or overexpression by combining with mRNA and participate in posttranscriptional regulation of genes, resulting in reduced expression of target proteins, affecting the development, growth, aging, metabolism, and other physiological and pathological processes of animals and plants. It is a powerful negative regulator of gene expression. It mediates the information exchange between different cellular pathways in cellular homeostasis and stress response and regulates the differentiation, plasticity, and neurotransmission of neurons. In neurodegenerative diseases, in addition to the complex interactions between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors, miRNAs can serve as a promising diagnostic tool for diseases. They can also increase or reduce neuronal damage by regulating the body's signaling pathways, immune system, stem cells, gut microbiota, etc. They can not only affect the occurrence of diseases and exacerbate disease progression but also promote neuronal repair and reduce apoptosis, to prevent and slow down the development of diseases. This article reviews the research progress of miRNAs on the mechanism and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases in the nervous system. This trial is registered with NCT01819545, NCT02129452, NCT04120493, NCT04840823, NCT02253732, NCT02045056, NCT03388242, NCT01992029, NCT04961450, NCT03088839, NCT04137926, NCT02283073, NCT04509271, NCT02859428, and NCT05243017.

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