Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

Induction of IL-2 by interleukin-12 p40 homodimer and IL-12, but not IL-23, in microglia and macrophages: Implications for multiple sclerosis.

Cytokine 2023 December 6
The level of IL-2 increases markedly in serum and central nervous system (CNS) of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and animals with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, mechanisms by which IL-2 is induced under autoimmune demyelinating conditions are poorly understood. The present study underlines the importance of IL-12p40 homodimer (p402 ), the so-called biologically inactive molecule, in inducing the expression of IL-2 in mouse BV-2 microglial cells, primary mouse and human microglia, mouse peritoneal macrophages, RAW264.7 macrophages, and T cells. Interestingly, we found that p402 and IL-12p70 (IL-12), but not IL-23, dose-dependently induced the production of IL-2 and the expression of IL-2 mRNA in microglial cells. Similarly, p402 also induced the activation of IL-2 promoter in microglial cells and RAW264.7 cells. Among various stimuli tested, p402 was the most potent stimulus followed by IFN-γ, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, HIV-1 gp120, and IL-12 in inducing the activation of IL-2 promoter in microglial cells. Moreover, p402 , but not IL-23, increased NFATc2 mRNA expression and the transcriptional activity of NFAT. Furthermore, induction of IL-2 mRNA expression by over-expression of p40, but not by p19, cDNA indicated that p40, but not p19, is responsible for the induction of IL-2 mRNA in microglia. Finally, by using primary microglia from IL to 12 receptor β1 deficient (IL-12Rβ1-/- ) and IL-12 receptor β2 deficient (IL-12Rβ2-/- ) mice, we demonstrate that p402 induces the expression of IL-2 via IL-12Rβ1, but not IL-12Rβ2. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of MS, neutralization of p402 by mAb a3-1d led to decrease in clinical symptoms and reduction in IL-2 in T cells and microglia. These results delineate a new biological function of p402 , which is missing in the so-called autoimmune cytokine IL-23, and raise the possibility of controlling increased IL-2 and the disease process of MS via neutralization of p402 .

Full text links

We have located links that may give you full text access.
Can't access the paper?
Try logging in through your university/institutional subscription. For a smoother one-click institutional access experience, please use our mobile app.

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Mobile app image

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2024 by WebMD LLC.
This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.

By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Your Privacy Choices Toggle icon

You can now claim free CME credits for this literature searchClaim now

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app