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Application of myocardial work in predicting adverse events among patients with resistant hypertension.

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is the most common chronic disease and the leading risk factor for disability and premature deaths worldwide. Approximately 10-20% of all patients with hypertension and 15-18% of the general population who are treated for hypertension have resistant hypertension (RH). Patients with RH have a higher risk of end-organ damage, such as carotid intima-media thickening, retinopathy, left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure, myocardial infarction, stroke, impaired renal function, and death than those with controlled blood pressure. In the present study, we applied echocardiography to patients with RH to evaluate myocardial work (MW) and determine whether it is predictive for the occurrence of adverse events within 3 years.

METHODS: We included 283 outpatients and inpatients aged ≥ 18 years who met the clinical criteria for RH, without arrhythmia and severe aortic valve stenosis, between July 2018 and June 2019. The patients were followed up for 3 years from starting enrollment, and any adverse event that occurred during the period was used as the observation end point. Each enrolled patient underwent a complete transthoracic echocardiogram examination, blood pressure was measured and recorded, and MW was then analyzed.

RESULTS: Eighty-two (28.98%) patients with RH had adverse events, such as myocardial infarction (n = 29, 35.36%), heart failure (n = 4, 0.05%), renal insufficiency (n = 40, 48.78%), renal failure (n = 2, 0.02%), cerebral infarction (n = 5, 0.06%), and cerebral hemorrhage (n = 2, 0.02%), and no death events occurred. In patients with RH and adverse events, global longitudinal strain (GLS) (- 16% vs. - 18%), the global work index (2079 mmHg% vs. 2327 mmHg%), global constructive work (2321 mmHg% vs. 2610 mmHg%), and global work efficiency (93% vs. 94%) were lower than those in patients without adverse events. However, global wasted work (GWW) was higher in patients with RH and adverse events than in those without adverse events (161 mmHg% vs. 127 mmHg%). GLS and GWW were the most significant in predicting adverse events.

CONCLUSIONS: MW, especially GLS and GWW, is a good method to predict 3-year adverse events in patients with RH.

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