The influence of maternal high fat diet during lactation on offspring hematopoietic priming.
Obesity and metabolic diseases are rising in women of reproductive age, increasing offspring metabolic risk. Maternal nutritional interventions during lactation present an opportunity to modify offspring outcomes. We previously demonstrated in mice that adult male offspring have metabolic impairments and increased adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) when dams are fed high fat diet (HFD) during the postnatal lactation window (HFD PN). We sought to understand the effect of HFD during lactation on early life inflammation. HFD PN offspringwere evaluated at postnatal day 16-19 for tissue weight and gene expression. Profiling of adipose tissue and bone marrow immune cells was conducted through lipidomics, in vitro myeloid colony forming unit assays, and flow cytometry. HFD PN mice had more visceral gonadal white adipose tissue (GWAT) and subcutaneous fat. Adipose tissue RNA sequencing demonstrated enrichment of inflammation, chemotaxis, and fatty acid metabolism and concordant changes in GWAT lipidomics. Bone marrow (BM) of both HFD PN male and female offspring had increased monocytes (CD45+Ly6G-CD11b+CD115+) and B-cells (CD45+Ly6G-CD11b-CD19+). Similarly, serum from HFD PN offspring enhanced in vitro BM myeloid colonies in a toll-like receptor 4-dependent manner. We identified that male HFD PN offspring had increased GWAT pro-inflammatory CD11c+ ATMs (CD45+CD64+). Maternal exposure to HFD alters milk lipids enhancing adiposity and myeloid inflammation even in early life. Future studies are needed to understand the mechanisms driving this pro-inflammatory state of both BM and ATMs, the causes of the sexually dimorphic phenotypes and the feasibility of intervening in this window to improve metabolic health.
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