Experimental models for elderly patients with membranous nephropathy: Application and advancements.
Membranous nephropathy (MN) occurs predominantly in middle-aged and elderly individuals and ranks among the most prevalent etiologies of elderly nephrotic syndrome. As an autoimmune glomerular disorder characterized by glomerular basement membrane thickening and immune complex deposition, conventional MN animal models, including the Heymann nephritis rat model and the c-BSA mouse model, have laid a foundation for MN pathogenesis research. However, differences in target antigens between rodents and humans have impeded this work. In recent years, researchers have created antigen-specific MN animal models, primarily centered on PLA2R1 and THSD7A, employing diverse techniques that provide innovative in vivo research platforms for MN. Furthermore, significant advancements have been made in the development of in vitro podocyte models relevant to MN. This review compiles recent antigen-specific MN animal models and podocyte models, elucidates their immune responses and pathological characteristics, and offers insights into the future of MN experimental model development. Our aim is to provide a comprehensive resource for research into the pathogenesis of MN and the development of targeted therapies for older patients with MN to prolong lifespan and improve quality of life.
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