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Short-term and long-term efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy in different courses for house dust mite-induced allergic rhinitis.

PURPOSE: Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has been proven to be an effective and safe treatment for patients with house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic rhinitis (AR) to achieve short-term and long-term efficacy. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between SLIT duration and long-term efficacy.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study involved 134 patients who underwent SLIT between 2019 and 2021 (in the 2-year group), between 2018 and 2021(in the 3-year group), or between 2017 and 2021 (in the 4-year group). The total nasal symptoms score (TNSS), total medication score (TMS), visual analogue scale (VAS), the Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (MiniRQLQ) and adverse events (AEs) were assessed at baseline, after treatment (2021) and one year after the treatment completion (2022). The correlation between MiniRQLQ and other indicators was also analyzed.

RESULTS: After SLIT, patients in all three groups showed significant improvements in TNSS, TMS, VAS and MiniRQLQ scores (all p < 0.001). These improvements were sustained even one year after SLIT. Patients who received 3-4 years of SLIT showed significant improvement compared with those who received 2 years of SLIT in all clinical outcomes (all p < 0.01). The analysis showed positive correlations between the MiniRQLQ and TNSS, TMS, and VAS (all p < 0.001). No significant difference was observed in the AE rate in all three groups (p > 0.05).

CONCLUSION: Different duration of HDM SLIT could generate various short-term and long-term clinical efficacy. The MiniRQLQ could be applied to evaluate SLIT efficacy in clinical practice.

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