Engineering Versatile Nanomedicines for Ultrasonic Tumor Immunotherapy.
Due to the specific advantages of ultrasound (US) in therapeutic disease treatments, the unique therapeutic US technology has emerged. In addition to featuring a low-invasive targeted cancer-cell killing effect, the therapeutic US technology has been demonstrated to modulate the tumor immune landscape, amplify the therapeutic effect of other antitumor therapies, and induce immunosensitization of tumors to immunotherapy, shedding new light on the cancer treatment. Tremendous advances in nanotechnology are also expected to bring unprecedented benefits to enhancing the antitumor efficiency and immunological effects of therapeutic US, as well as therapeutic US-derived bimodal and multimodal synergistic therapies. This comprehensive review summarizes the immunological effects induced by different therapeutic US technologies, including ultrasound-mediated micro-/nanobubble destruction (UTMD/UTND), sonodynamic therapy (SDT), and focused ultrasound (FUS), as well as the main underlying mechanisms involved. It is also discussed that the recent research progress of engineering intelligent nanoplatform in improving the antitumor efficiency of therapeutic US technologies. Finally, focusing on clinical translation, the key issues and challenges currently faced are summarized, and the prospects for promoting the clinical translation of these emerging nanomaterials and ultrasonic immunotherapy in the future are proposed.
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