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Dysnatremia at ICU admission and functional outcome of cardiac arrest: insights from four randomised controlled trials.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the potential association between early dysnatremia and 6-month functional outcome after cardiac arrest.

METHODS: We pooled data from four randomised clinical trials in post-cardiac-arrest patients admitted to the ICU with coma after stable return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Admission natremia was categorised as normal (135-145 mmol/L), low, or high. We analysed associations between natremia category and Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) 1 or 2 at 6 months, with and without adjustment on the modified Cardiac Arrest Hospital Prognosis Score (mCAHP).

RESULTS: We included 1163 patients (581 from HYPERION, 352 from TTH48, 120 from COMACARE, and 110 from Xe-HYPOTHECA) with a mean age of 63 ± 13 years and a predominance of males (72.5%). A cardiac cause was identified in 63.6% of cases. Median time from collapse to ROSC was 20 [15-29] minutes. Overall, mean natremia on ICU admission was 137.5 ± 4.7 mmol/L; 211 (18.6%) and 31 (2.7%) patients had hyponatremia and hypernatremia, respectively. By univariate analysis, CPC 1 or 2 at 6 months was significantly less common in the group with hyponatremia (50/211 [24%] vs. 363/893 [41%]; P = 0.001); the mCAHP-adjusted odds ratio was 0.45 (95%CI 0.26-0.79, p = 0.005). The number of patients with hypernatremia was too small for a meaningful multivariable analysis.

CONCLUSIONS: Early hyponatremia was common in patients with ROSC after cardiac arrest and was associated with a poorer 6-month functional outcome. The mechanisms underlying this association remain to be elucidated in order to determine whether interventions targeting hyponatremia are worth investigating. Registration, NCT01994772, November 2013, 21.

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