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Latencies to the first interictal epileptiform discharges recorded by the electroencephalography in different epileptic patients.

BMC Neurology 2023 December 2
PURPOSE: Interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) captured in electroencephalography (EEG) have a high diagnostic value for epileptic patients. Extending the recording time may increase the possibility of obtaining IEDs. The purpose of our research was to determine how long it took for various epileptic individuals to receive their first IEDs.

METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients who were diagnosed with epilepsy and had no anti-seizure medications (ASMs) between September 2018 and March 2019 in the neurology department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University. Each individual underwent a 24-h long-term video electroencephalographic monitoring (VEM) procedure. Clinical information including age, gender, age of seizure onset, frequency of seizures, the interval between last seizure and VEM, and results of neuroimaging were gathered. We also calculated the times from the start of the VEM to the first definite IEDs.

RESULTS: A total of 241 patients were examined, including 191 with focal-onset epilepsy and 50 with generalized epilepsy. In individuals with focal-onset epilepsy, the median latency to the first IED was 63.0 min (IQR 19.0-299.0 min), as compared to 30.0 min (IQR 12.5-62.0 min) in patients with generalized epilepsy (p < 0.001). The latency to the first IED is significantly related to the age of seizure onset (HR = 0.988, p = 0.049), the interval between last seizure and VEM (HR = 0.998, p = 0.013). But it is not correlated with seizure frequency, gender and age.

CONCLUSIONS: IEDs were discovered during 24-h EEG monitoring in 222/241(92.1%) of the epilepsy patients that were included. Compared to focal-onset epilepsy, generalized epilepsy demonstrated a much shorter latency to IED. Patients with late-onset epilepsy or those without recent episodes may require longer EEG monitoring periods.

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