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Fruit vinegar as a promising source of natural anti-inflammatory agents: an up-to-date review.

OBJECTIVES: Fruit vinegar is one of the most famous fruit byproducts worldwide with several unique properties. There are two types of fruit vinegar, artisanal and industrial, for consumers to choose from. This review aims to assess for the first time the phytochemistry of fruit vinegar and its anti-inflammatory effects.

METHOD: The present work was conducted based on a literature search that selected the relevant papers from indexed databases such as Scopus, Science Direct, MDPI, PubMed, Hindawi, and Web of Science. We used numerous terms to assure a good search in different databases, including fruit vinegar, phytochemistry, bioavailability and bioaccessibility, and anti-inflammatory effect. All articles were selected based on their relevance, quality, and problematic treatment.

RESULTS: Literature data have shown that vinegar has a long medicinal history and has been widely used by different civilizations, due to its richness in bioactive molecules, vinegar plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including atopic dermatitis, mastitis, asthma, arthritis, acute pancreatitis, and colitis. Fruit vinegar consumption benefit is highly dependent on its chemical composition, especially organic acids and antioxidants, which can act as nutraceuticals.

CONCLUSION: Fruit vinegar has a rich chemical composition, including organic acids that can be transformed in the digestive system into compounds that play an important role in health-promoting features such as anti-inflammatory effects throughout the control of intestinal microbiota and pro-inflammatory cytokine production.

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