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Cascade testing of children and adolescents for elevated Lp(a) in pedigrees with familial hypercholesterolaemia.

Elevated plasma lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a common, inherited condition independently causing cardiovascular disease. Recent expert recommendations suggest opportunistically testing for elevated Lp(a) during cascade testing for familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). We investigated the effectiveness of detecting elevated Lp(a) in 103 children and adolescents who were first-degree relatives of 66 adult index FH cases as part of an established FH cascade screening program. The yield of detection of elevated Lp(a) using a threshold of ≥30 mg/dL in children and adolescents was assessed. Cascade testing from FH index cases with elevated Lp(a) ≥50 mg/dL identified 1 case of Lp(a) ≥30 mg/dL for every 2 children or adolescents tested. In contrast, opportunistic screening from index cases with FH but normal Lp(a) levels demonstrated 1 case of Lp(a) ≥30 mg/dL for every 7.5 children or adolescents tested (p < 0.001). In conclusion, cascade testing for elevated Lp(a) from index cases with FH and elevated Lp(a) is effective in identifying new cases of elevated Lp(a).

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