Secretome of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) and its extracellular vesicles improves keratinocytes migration, viability and attenuation of H 2 O 2 -induced cytotoxicity.
Therapies for wound healing using the secretome and extracellular vesicles (EVs) of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells have been shown to be successful in preclinical studies. This study aimed to characterize the protein content of the secretome from stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) and analyze the in vitro effects of SHED-conditioned medium (SHED-CM) and SHED extracellular vesicles (SHED-EVs) on keratinocytes. Extracellular vesicles were isolated and characterized. The keratinocyte viability and migration of cells treated with SHED-EVs and conditioned medium (CM) were evaluated. An HaCaT apoptosis model induced by H2 O2 in vitro was performed with H2 O2 followed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and live/dead assays. Finally, the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in keratinocytes treated with secretome and EVs was evaluated by immunofluorescence staining and confirmed with RT-qPCR. SHED-EVs revealed a cup-shaped morphology with expression of the classical markers for exosomes CD9 and CD63, and a diameter of 181 ± 87 nm. The internalization of EVs by HaCaT cells was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. Proteomic analysis identified that SHED-CM is enriched with proteins related to stress response and development, including cytokines (CXCL8, IL-6, CSF1, CCL2) and growth factors (IGF2, MYDGF, PDGF). The results also indicated that 50% CM and 0.4-0.6 μg/mL EVs were similarly efficient for improving keratinocyte viability, migration, and attenuation of H2 O2 -induced cytotoxicity. Additionally, expression of VEGF on keratinocytes increased when treated with SHED secretome and EVs. Furthermore, VEGF gene expression in keratinocytes increased significantly when treated with SHED secretome and EVs. Both SHED-CM and SHED-EVs may therefore be promising therapeutic tools for accelerating re-epithelialization in wound healing.
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