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Hydrometrocolpos: a Contemporary Review of the Last 5 Years.

Current Urology Reports 2023 December 2
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of hydrometrocolpos, covering disease etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and diagnostic and management techniques, and known outcomes.

RECENT FINDINGS: This narrative review presents the literature on hydrometrocolpos in the pediatric population from the past 5 years. We highlight the 69 reported cases of hydrometrocolpos and classify them based on type of obstruction or associated anomaly, discuss new diagnostic algorithms based on imaging, and present novel and underutilized surgical techniques for definitive management. Hydrometrocolpos, a condition characterized by retained fluid causing a distended vagina and uterus in the setting of a distal vaginal outflow obstruction, has a wide range of presentation severity based on the type of obstruction. Whether hydrometrocolpos is due to an isolated condition like imperforate hymen, a complex abnormality like cloacal malformation, or a part of a large congenital syndrome, the mainstay of treatment is decompression of the dilated vagina and surgical correction of the outflow obstruction. Imaging-based diagnostic algorithms and new treatment techniques reported in the literature, as well as longitudinal and patient-reported outcome research, can improve the lives of children affected by this condition.

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