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Systematic review of the risk of urolithiasis following parathyroidectomy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.

OBJECTIVE: Parathyroidectomy (PTX) is the conclusive therapy for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), but its effect on the risk of urolithiasis is inconclusive. We comprehensively reviewed the currently available research to investigate the impact of PTX on the likelihood of urolithiasis among individuals suffering PHPT.

METHODS: Internet-based articles in English language released on Cochrane, PubMed, Scopus, Web of knowledge, and Embase up to September, 2023 were comprehensively reviewed. Each publication in contrast to the incidence, occurrence, or recurrence of urolithiasis after PTX versus medical treatment in PHPT patients was included. The outcome with pooled relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was examined employing DerSimonian and Laird's model of random effects. To determine the range of the real effect size of a future study in 95% of all populations, a prediction interval (PI) was also established.

RESULTS: Finally, ten studies involving 74,190 patients were included. Results from randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies (OSs) both revealed that PTX did not substantially lessen the vulnerability of urolithiasis among individuals with PHPT (RCTs: pooled relative risk [RR] 0.42, 95%CI 0.13-1.41, p = 0.163; OSs: pooled RR 1.37, 95%CI 0.96 to 1.97, p = 0.084). The PI (RCT: 0.03 to 5.96; OSs: 0.44-4.20) containing 1.0 suggested the possibility of consistent results in future studies. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses supported the above findings, and no evidence showed publication bias.

CONCLUSION: Our analysis from the available RCTs or OSs did not give adequate or exact proof that the average effect of PTX lowers the incidence of urolithiasis among PHPT persons based on the random-effects model. Future research shall take into account the common effect of PTX as well as the prerequisites of preventive stone procedures, which will further help us assess the effectiveness of PTX in reducing kidney calculus comorbidity and develop techniques to avoid stone sequelae in these individuals.

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