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Gestational weight gain of multiparas and risk of primary preeclampsia: a retrospective cohort study in Shanghai.

Clinical Hypertension 2023 December 2
BACKGROUND: In all studies conducted so far, there was no report about the correlation between excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and the risk of preeclampsia (PE) in multiparas, especially considering that multiparity is a protective factor for both excessive GWG and PE. Thus, the aim of this retrospective cohort study was to determine whether GWG of multiparas is associated with the increased risk of PE.

METHODS: This was a study with 15,541 multiparous women who delivered in a maternity hospital in Shanghai from 2017 to 2021, stratified by early-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) category. Early-pregnancy body weight, height, week-specific and total gestational weight gain as well as records of antenatal care were extracted using electronic medical records, and antenatal weight gain measurements were standardized into gestational age-specific z scores.

RESULTS: Among these 15,541 multiparous women, 534 (3.44%) developed preeclampsia. The odds of preeclampsia increased by 26% with every 1 z score increase in pregnancy weight gain among normal weight women and by 41% among overweight or obese women. For normal weight women, pregnant women with preeclampsia gained more weight than pregnant women without preeclampsia beginning at 25 weeks of gestation, while accelerated weight gain was more obvious in overweight or obese women after 25 weeks of gestation.

CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, excessive GWG in normal weight and overweight or obese multiparas was strongly associated with the increased risk of preeclampsia. In parallel, the appropriate management and control of weight gain, especially in the second and third trimesters, may lower the risk of developing preeclampsia.

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