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Clinical study of hepatitis B vaccine in achieving hepatitis B surface antibody seroconversion in patients with functional cure.

Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance is the highest treatment goal recommended by the current guidelines for hepatitis B. Levels of antibodies to HBsAg (anti-HBs) are strongly associated with HBsAg recurrence, but hepatitis B vaccination may increase the anti-HBs seroconversion rate and reduce recurrence. We conducted a retrospective clinical study to ascertain the effect of this vaccination on the seroconversion rate and levels of protective anti-HBs after HBsAg. In this retrospective study, we distributed a questionnaire through an online survey platform to collect information related to hepatitis B vaccination in patients with functional cure of hepatitis B with Interferon-α (IFNα) therapy. We enrolled 320 patients who achieved functional cure from IFNα therapy. Of these, 219 patients had received hepatitis B vaccination according to their personal preference and drug accessibility after HBsAg seroclearance, whereas the remaining 101 patients did not receive hepatitis B vaccination. The anti-HBs seroconversion rate of 78.1% in the vaccinated group was significantly greater than that in the unvaccinated group (41.6%) (p < 0.001). Stratified comparisons with anti-HBs of ≥ 100 IU/L and ≥ 300 IU/L showed that both proportions in the vaccinated group were greater than those in the unvaccinated group (71.2% vs. 32.7% and 56.2% vs. 17.8%, respectively, all p-values < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio of vaccination was 4.427, which was the strongest influencing factor for anti-HBs, reaching 100 IU/L or higher. Hepatitis B vaccination in patients after HBsAg seroclearance not only increased the anti-HBs seroconversion rate but also significantly increased antibody levels, with good safety, indicating the clinical value of vaccine therapy for patients with functional cure.

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