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Clinical and histopathological characteristics, diagnosis and treatment, and comorbidities of Bowen's disease: a retrospective study.

BACKGROUND: Bowen's disease (BD) is a slow-growing precancerous skin condition, often concurrent with other diseases, with a high misdiagnosis rate. Previous studies show that patients with BD in different populations have differentiated characteristics.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in Shenzhen, China. Data about demographic information, diagnosis and treatment, clinical and pathological characteristics, and comorbidities of 50 patients with BD were collected and analyzed.

RESULTS: Clinical data of onset age and disease course of 43 patients with BD were available, the average onset age of male and female patients are 55.1 (standard deviation (SD) = 15.29) and 58.2 (SD = 15.59) years old, respectively; the average disease course of male and female patients are 25.3 (SD = 28.63) and 33.9 (SD = 49.65) months, respectively. The onset age ( p  = 0.52) and disease course ( p  = 0.49) between male and female patients are not significantly different. Interestingly, there is a negative correlation between onset age and disease course (r = -0.245, p  = 0.11). The correct rate of clinical diagnosis is relatively low (54.00%); Some patients with BD are misdiagnosed as Bowenoid papulosis (10.00%), actinic keratosis (8.00%), basal cell carcinoma (8.00%), seborrheic keratosis (6.00%), and pigmented naevus (4.00%). Trunk and limbs are the most common distribution sites of BD lesions, and 94.00% patients with BD are treated with surgical resection; 66.00% patients with BD had comorbidities, including skin diseases (48.48%), cardiovascular diseases (39.39%), gastrointestinal diseases (30.30%), respiratory diseases (27.27%), and tumors (18.18%). The most commonly observed histopathological characteristics of BD are squamous-cell hyperplasia (86.00%), disordered maturation with atypical keratinocytes (74.00%), atypical mitoses (60.00%), hyperkeratosis with hypokeratosis (48.00%), dermal inflammatory cell infiltration (36.00%), and koilocytosis (22.00%).

CONCLUSION: BD often occurs in middle-aged and elderly people and is easily misdiagnosed. The onset age and disease course of patients with BD are not significantly different between males and females, whereas there is a negative correlation between the onset age and disease course. BD is more likely to occur in trunk and limbs in the Chinese population, and most patients with BD are concurrent with comorbidities.

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