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Association of Insomnia, Sleep Quality, and Sleep Duration With Risk of Physical Frailty in Middle-aged and Older People With HIV.

BACKGROUND: Frailty is one of the major concerns among aging people with HIV (PWH). Evidence regarding the association between sleep disorders and physical frailty in PWH is limited.

METHODS: PWH and HIV-negative individuals aged ≥40 years were included and frequency-matched in a 1:2 ratio by sex and age. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs of the association between sleep disorders and physical frailty, and restricted cubic splines were used to describe the dose-response association. The contribution of depression to the association was estimated by mediation analysis.

RESULTS: A total of 1526 PWH and 3052 HIV-negative individuals were included. Logistic regression indicated that insomnia (OR, 3.05; 95% CI, 1.63-5.72) and poor sleep quality (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.21-4.45) were significantly associated with physical frailty in middle-aged and older PWH, especially in those with current CD4+ T-cell counts <350 cells/µL, but not in HIV-negative participants. A U-shaped and J-shaped dose-response relation between sleep duration and physical frailty was observed in PWH and HIV-negative participants, respectively. Shorter and longer sleep duration was associated with an increased risk of physical frailty in PWH. However, in HIV-negative participants, only longer sleep duration was associated with physical frailty. Mediation analysis revealed that depression mediated the relation between sleep disorders and frailty among PWH.

CONCLUSIONS: Sleep disorders including insomnia, poor sleep quality, and short and long sleep duration were significantly associated with physical frailty among middle-aged and older PWH. Depression may play a mediating role in the sleep-frailty association.

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