Gene therapy for adenosine deaminase severe combined immune deficiency-An unexpected journey of four decades.
Severe combined immune deficiency due to adenosine deaminase deficiency (ADA SCID) is an inborn error of immunity with pan-lymphopenia, due to accumulated cytotoxic adenine metabolites. ADA SCID has been treated using gene therapy with a normal human ADA gene added to autologous hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) for over 30 years. Iterative improvements in vector design, HSC processing methods, and clinical HSC transplant procedures have led nearly all ADA SCID gene therapy patients to achieve consistently beneficial immune restoration with stable engraftment of ADA gene-corrected HSC over the duration of observation (as long as 20 years). One gene therapy for ADA SCID is approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in the European Union (EU) and another is being advanced to licensure in the U.S. and U.K. Despite the clear-cut benefits and safety of this curative gene and cell therapy, it remains challenging to achieve sustained availability and access, especially for rare disorders like ADA SCID.
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