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Micro-nanoemulsion and nanoparticle-assisted drug delivery against drug-resistant tuberculosis: recent developments.

SUMMARYTuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem and the second most prevalent infectious killer after COVID-19. It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) and has become increasingly challenging to treat due to drug resistance. The World Health Organization declared TB a global health emergency in 1993. Drug resistance in TB is driven by mutations in the bacterial genome that can be influenced by prolonged drug exposure and poor patient adherence. The development of drug-resistant forms of TB, such as multidrug resistant, extensively drug resistant, and totally drug resistant, poses significant therapeutic challenges. Researchers are exploring new drugs and novel drug delivery systems, such as nanotechnology-based therapies, to combat drug resistance. Nanodrug delivery offers targeted and precise drug delivery, improves treatment efficacy, and reduces adverse effects. Along with nanoscale drug delivery, a new generation of antibiotics with potent therapeutic efficacy, drug repurposing, and new treatment regimens (combinations) that can tackle the problem of drug resistance in a shorter duration could be promising therapies in clinical settings. However, the clinical translation of nanomedicines faces challenges such as safety, large-scale production, regulatory frameworks, and intellectual property issues. In this review, we present the current status, most recent findings, challenges, and limiting barriers to the use of emulsions and nanoparticles against drug-resistant TB.

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