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8-Chloroadenosine Induces ER Stress and Apoptotic Cell Death in Cholangiocarcinoma Cells.

Anticancer Research 2023 December
BACKGROUND/AIM: Cholangiocarcinoma is a lethal cancer, and current chemotherapeutic drugs are not very effective. Recent studies reported that cholangiocarcinoma cells were sensitive to adenosine. One adenosine analog, 8-chloroadenosine (8-CA), was shown to be more potent than adenosine and induced apoptosis in leukemia cells. This study examined effects of 8-CA in cholangiocarcinoma cells and immortalized cholangiocytes.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell growth was examined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Cell invasion was examined by transwell assay. Cell cycle and cell death were evaluated by flow cytometry. Colorimetric absorbance assay was used to assessed RNA and protein synthesis as well as mitochondrial membrane potential. Protein levels were examined by western blot analysis. Animal experiment was performed in Balb/cAJcl-Nu mice.

RESULTS: 8-CA reduced cholangiocarcinoma cell growth, prevented colony formation and caused endoplasmic reticulum stress and cell-cycle arrest. Eventually, apoptosis was induced. However, treatment with 8-CA did not interfere with RNA synthesis or protein synthesis and did not alter mitochondrial membrane potential. Combination of 8-CA with several chemotherapeutic drugs in vitro was less effective than 8-CA alone and the drugs alone, except for the combination of 8-CA with hydroxychloroquine, which had an additive effect on RMCCA-1 cells. However, further in vivo study showed that treatment with 8-CA alone inhibited tumor growth more than treatment with a combination of 8-CA with hydroxychloroquine.

CONCLUSION: 8-Chloroadenosine inhibited CCA cells by inducing endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis. In vivo study showed that 8-CA inhibited cholangiocarcinoma tumor growth better when administered alone as compared to a combination with hydroxychloroquine.

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