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Surgical tool entrapment in a young patient with recurrent lumbar spinal stenosis: a case report.

Clinical Case Reports 2023 November
Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a prevalent cause of leg and back pain. In the youth, LSS is not common and mainly results from hereditary musculoskeletal disorders. Moreover, spinal fusion is a surgical approach to the treatment of LSS. Entrapment of surgical tools due to breakage is a rare yet important phenomenon in such operations. Therefore, neurological sequelae of these events need to be explored. The case was a 24-year-old male complaining of local back pain. Initially, he was diagnosed with LSS at L4 and L5. After the fusion of the vertebrae by the posterior spinal fusion (PSF) method, the patient's pain was resolved. However, the subject complained of worsening local back pain limiting his ability to do routine tasks. A few years later, radiographical evaluations indicated the possible presence of a surgical tool that could not be removed via surgery. During a third operation, the object was removed, and the patient's symptoms recovered. Immediate removal of entrapped surgical objects is necessary due to risks associated with migration and central nervous system damage. Comparing our results to other similar reports, we conclude that in cases of foreign object entrapment, neurological sequelae may be nonexistent or progressively worsen. Also, sequelae emerge either soon after the operation or emerge later. This complicates the diagnosis of such events and the decision of whether to subject the patient to additional neurosurgical operations to remove the tool. These variations may be observed due to the moving of the entrapped tool. Follow-up of neurological sequelae in spinal surgery patients is recommended.

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