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A retrospective study of diagnosis and management of gallbladder perforation: 10-year experience from a tertiary health care centre.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to perform retrospective analysis of data collected from patients of gallbladder perforations for diagnosis, management and outcome.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of data was carried out for 40 patients of gallbladder perforations from the hospital record of patients who were diagnosed preoperatively and intraoperatively as a case of gallbladder perforation over a period of 10 years and were managed in our surgery unit of a tertiary health care centre. Patients were included irrespective of sex except cases of trauma and patients of the paediatric age group.

RESULTS: Among 40 patients, 26 were females and 14 were males. As per Anderson modification of Neimeier classification, 13 (32.5%) had type 1, 23 (57.5%) had type 2, and four (10%) patients had type 3 perforations and none of the patients had type 4 perforation. Twenty-three patients (57.5%) were found to have fundal perforation, followed by body in 11 patients (27.5%), three (7.5%) in Hartman's pouch while in three patients (7.5%), there were multiple perforations. All patients of type 1 Neimer classification were diagnosed clinically as cases of biliary peritonitis, whereas most cases of type 2 Neimer classification were diagnosed preoperatively by CECT abdomen 12/23 patients (52%) and ultrasound abdomen 10/23 (43.47%). All patients underwent surgery, and there were three mortalities.

CONCLUSION: In our study, there was female predominance in patients having gallbladder perforation. Of the patients, 52.5% were diabetic and mean age was 55.9 years. CECT abdomen was the most useful modality for diagnosis of type 2 gallbladder perforations. Timely surgical intervention is mandatory for a better outcome of these cases.

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