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A National HIV Provider Survey of Antiretroviral Therapy Preferences for Management of Treatment-Naive and Experienced Individuals With Drug Resistance.

BACKGROUND: HIV clinical practice guidelines outline broad treatment principles but offer less explicit recommendations by permutations of encountered viral resistance. We hypothesize that there is variability in antiretroviral (ARV) regimen decision making among providers when considering HIV drug resistance (HIVDR).

METHODS: US HIV providers provided ARV regimen recommendations for case vignettes in a series of electronic surveys encompassing variations of HIVDR. Responses were characterized by drugs and classes selected and anticipated activity based on genotypic susceptibility. Heterogeneity was defined as the proportion of unique ARV regimens from total responses.

RESULTS: An overall 119 providers from the United States participated. Among case vignettes with isolated M184V and viremia, 85.9% selected a regimen with 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) + integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI); 9.9% selected regimens with >3 ARVs. Alternatively, in scenarios of viremia with moderate to high-level NRTI resistance, >50% of providers selected an NRTI-sparing regimen, while a minority recommended 2 NRTIs + INSTI (21/123, 17%). In moderate to high-level INSTI resistance, there was response heterogeneity, with no common unifying approach to management (127 unique regimens/181 responses, 70% heterogeneity). Providers used cabotegravir/rilpivirine for treatment simplification in suppressed cases, despite a history of treatment failure (37/205, 36%).

CONCLUSIONS: Our national survey of US HIV providers revealed a consensus to management of HIV resistance with potential alternative options in cases with low heterogeneity. Providers selected cabotegravir/rilpivirine as a viable treatment simplification strategy in suppressed cases with a history of treatment failure. The responses to the case vignettes could be used an education tool for ARV decision making in HIVDR.

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