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Hailey-Hailey Disease is Associated with Diabetes: A Population-based Cohort Study, Clinical Cohort Study, and Pedigree Analysis.

Hailey-Hailey disease is a rare hereditary skin disease caused by mutations in the ATP2C1 gene encoding the secretory pathway Ca2+/Mn2+-ATPase 1 (SPCA1) protein. Extracutaneous manifestations of Hailey-Hailey disease are plausible but still largely unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the association between Hailey-Hailey disease and diabetes. A population-based cohort study of 347 individuals with Hailey-Hailey  disease was performed to assess the risks of type 1  diabetes and type 2 diabetes, using Swedish nationwide registries. Pedigrees from 2 Swedish families with Hailey-Hailey disease were also investigated: 1 with concurrent type 1 diabetes and HLA-DQ3, the other with type 2 diabetes. Lastly, a clinical cohort with 23 individuals with Hailey-Hailey disease and matched healthy controls was evaluated regarding diabetes. In the register data males with Hailey-Hailey disease had a 70% elevated risk of type 2 diabetes, whereas no  excess risk among women could be confirmed. In both pedigrees an unusually high inheritance for diabetes was observed. In the clinical cohort, individuals with Hailey-Hailey disease displayed a metabolic phenotype indicative of type 2 diabetes. Hailey-Hailey disease seems to act as a synergistic risk factor for diabetes. This study indicates, for the first time, an association between Hailey-Hailey disease and diabetes and represents human evidence that SPCA1 and the Golgi apparatus may be implicated in diabetes pathophysiology.

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