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Association between psychological factors and molar-incisor hypomineralization: A cross-sectional study.

BACKGROUND: Molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental enamel defect characterized by opacities from white to brownish color. A suspected multifactorial etiology has been suggested, whereas psychological factors during pregnancy have only been limitedly analyzed.

AIM: We assessed the association between stress, depression, and anxiety in pregnancy and the presence of MIH in children at a later age.

DESIGN: Using a cross-sectional Web-based questionnaire, we included 384 mothers who had children aged 6 and 12 years from Pasto, Colombia. Data were collected between October 2021 and March 2022. Sociodemographic variables; maternal and child factors related to prenatal, natal, or postnatal problems; and psychological factors such as stress and symptoms of anxiety and depression in pregnancy were inquired. Utilizing photographs depicting MIH lesions, mothers assessed their child's MIH status. A directed acyclic graph (DAG) analysis was performed to create causal assumptions, and logistic regression models were estimated to evaluate these assumptions. p-value was set at p < .05.

RESULTS: The prevalence of MIH was 33.3%; 12.8% of the participants exhibited hypomineralization in both molars and incisors. DAG analysis and logistic regression models determined that MIH (present or not) was associated with symptoms of maternal depression (ORadj  = 3.26, 95% CI: 1.92-5.52, p < .001), and MIH (both molars and incisors) was associated with symptoms of maternal anxiety (ORadj  = 3.49, 95% CI: 1.80-6.76, p < .001).

CONCLUSION: Psychological factors, among others, were significantly associated with the presence of MIH.

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