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Multilevel and subnational analysis of the predictors of maternity continuum of care completion in Nigeria: a cross-sectional survey.

Scientific Reports 2023 November 28
Understanding population discrepancy in maternity continuum of care (CoC) completion, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa is significant for interventional plan to achieve optimal pregnancy outcome and child survival. This study thus investigated the magnitudes, distribution, and drivers of maternity CoC completion in Nigeria. A secondary analysis of 19,474 reproductive age (15-49 years) women with at least a birth (level 1) in 1400 communities (level 2) across 37 states covered in the 2018 cross-sectional survey. Stepwise regression initially identified important variables at 10% cutoff point. Multilevel analysis was performed to determine the likelihood and significance of individual and community factors. Intra-cluster correlation assessed the degree of clustering and deviance statistics identified the optimal model. Only 6.5% of the women completed the CoC. Completion rate is significantly different between communities "4.3% in urban and 2.2% in rural" (χ2  = 392.42, p < 0.001) and was higher in southern subnational than the north. Education (AOR = 1.61, 95% CI 1.20-2.16), wealth (AOR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.35-2.46), media exposure (AOR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.06-1.40), women deciding own health (AOR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.13-1.66), taking iron drug (AOR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.43-2.35) and at least 2 dose of tetanus-toxoid vaccine during pregnancy (AOR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.02-1.78) are associated individual factors. Rural residency (AOR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.43-2.35), region (AOR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.43-2.35) and rural population proportion (AOR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.43-2.35) are community predictors of the CoC completion. About 63.2% of the total variation in CoC completion was explained by the community predictors. Magnitude of maternity CoC completion is generally low and below the recommended level in Nigeria. Completion rate in urban is twice rural and more likely in the southern than northern subnational. Women residence and region are harmful and beneficial community drivers respectively. Strengthening women health autonomy, sensitization, and education programs particularly in the rural north are essential to curtail the community disparity and optimize maternity CoC practice.

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