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Colonisation of Group B Streptococcus and its effects on pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women in Guangzhou, China: a retrospective study.

BMJ Open 2023 November 28
OBJECTIVES: This study was to investigate the colonisation rate of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) during pregnancy, and to evaluate the influence of GBS colonisation on pregnancy outcomes.

DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study.

SETTING: Data of 47 380 pregnant women from 2016 to 2022 were collected from the Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Huadu District, Guangzhou City, China.

PARTICIPANTS: A total of 15 040 pregnant women were eligible for this study, of which 32 340 were excluded due to non-native pregnant women, in vitro fertilization infants, malformed fetuses, habitual abortion, abortions due to poor reproductive or obstetrical history, artificial insemination, umbilical cord torsion, and other diseases during pregnancy.

PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The incidence rates of GBS colonisation and premature delivery, fetal distress, premature rupture of membranes (PROM), low birth weight (LBW), abortion and stillbirth.

RESULTS: Of the 15 040 pregnant women included in this study, 1445 developed GBS colonisation, with a prevalence of 9.61% (95% CI, 9.15 to 10.09). Advanced maternal age (≥35 years) predisposed women to GBS colonisation, and the occurrence of GBS colonisation varied among different ethnic groups. Our data revealed that fetal distress, PROM and LBW were more common in pregnant women colonised with GBS than in pregnant women not colonised with GBS. The incidence for premature delivery, fetal distress, PROM and LBW in infants of pregnant women colonised with GBS was 41.0% (OR=1.410, 95% CI, 1.134 to 1.753), 282.5% (OR=3.825, 95% CI, 3.185 to 4.593), 14.9% (OR=1.149, 95% CI, 1.005 to 1.313), and 29.7% (OR=1.297, 95% CI, 1.010 to 1.664), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: GBS colonisation was relatively low in pregnant women in Guangzhou. Women of advanced maternal age were more prone to GBS colonisation, and pregnant women colonised with GBS were more predisposed to fetal distress, PROM and LBW.

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