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GM-CSF improves endometrial receptivity in a thin endometrium rat model by upregulating HOXA10.

Endometrial receptivity is a prerequisite for the success of assisted reproduction., Patients with a consistently thin endometrium frequently fail to conceive, owing to low endometrial receptivity, and there are currently very few therapeutic options available. Our previous study demonstrated that intrauterine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) administration resulted in a significant improvement in clinical pregnancy and implantation rates and was an effective means of increasing endometrial thickness on the day of embryo transfer in patients with thin endometrium. In order to explore the underlying process, an animal model with a thin endometrium was constructed, the homeobox A10 gene (HOXA10) was downregulated, and inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway (MAPK/ERK) were employed. Our findings strongly suggest a marked decrease in GM-CSF levels in the thin endometrial rat model, and a suppression of HOXA10 impeded the therapeutic efficacy of GM-CSF in this model. Moreover, we showed that GM-CSF significantly increases endometrial receptivity in the rat model and upregulates HOXA10 via the MAPK/ERK pathway. Our data provide new molecular insights into the mechanisms underlying formation of a thin endometrium and highlight a novel, potential clinical treatment strategy as well as directions for further research.

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