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Effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiovascular events in patients with atrial fibrillation: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) is reported to reduce incident atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with or without diabetes; however, its cardiovascular (CV) benefit for AF patients remains unclear.

SS AIMS: To investigate the effect of SGLT2i on the incidence of CV events in patients with AF.

METHODS: Six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of SGLT2i on CV outcomes in patients with or without AF were included (PROSPERO: CRD 42023431535). The primary endpoint was the composite outcome of heart failure (HF) hospitalization and CV death. Additionally, we assessed the effects of treatment in prespecified subgroups on HF hospitalization, CV death, and all-cause mortality.

RESULTS: Among 38,529 participants from all trials, 5018 patients with AF were treated with SGLT2i. The follow-up period of these trials ranged from 2.3 to 3.3 years. SGLT2i treatment was significantly associated with the risk reduction of primary endpoint in patients with AF (risk ratio [RR] 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74-0.88; p < 0.001), consistent with the finding in the general population (p for interaction = 0.76). SGLT2i was also associated with a consistent reduction in the risk of HF hospitalization in patients with AF (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.69-0.84; p < 0.001) or not (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.64-0.80; p < 0.0001), with no statistical difference between them (p for interaction = 0.41). Meta-regression further revealed no significant association between the prevalence of HF with reduced ejection fraction or diabetes and the effect size of SGLT2i.

CONCLUSIONS: The treatment effects of SGLT2i were associated with a lower incidence of CV events, especially HF hospitalization, in patients with AF.

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