Rubella virus chronic inflammatory disease and other unusual viral phenotypes in inborn errors of immunity.
Infectious susceptibility is a component of many inborn errors of immunity. Nevertheless, antibiotic use is often used as a surrogate in history taking for infectious susceptibility, thereby disadvantaging patients who present with viral infections as their phenotype. Further complicating clinical evaluations are unusual manifestations of viral infections which may be less familiar that the typical respiratory viral infections. This review covers several unusual viral phenotypes arising in patients with inborn errors of immunity and other settings of immune compromise. In some cases, chronic infections lead to oncogenesis or tumor-like growths and the conditions and mechanisms of viral-induced oncogenesis will be described. This review covers enterovirus, rubella, measles, papillomavirus, and parvovirus B19. It does not cover EBV and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis nor lymphomagenesis related to EBV. EBV susceptibility has been recently reviewed. Our goal is to increase awareness of the unusual manifestations of viral infections in patients with IEI and to describe treatment modalities utilized in this setting. Coincidentally, each of the discussed viral infections can have a cutaneous component and figures will serve as a reminder of the physical features of these viruses. Given the high morbidity and mortality, early recognition can only improve outcomes.
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