JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW
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Impact of sex and gender on axSpA diagnosis and outcomes.

Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) was historically considered a disease of men, largely due to the recognition of a more severe, progressive phenotype, ankylosing spondylitis (AS; or radiographic axSpA, r-axSpA) aiding the clinical diagnosis [1,2]. Data demonstrating the near equal prevalence of axSpA in women only started to emerge in the last decades, highlighting intrinsic differences in disease phenotype, and clinical and imaging characteristics between sexes, which partly explain the issue of underdiagnosis in women. Similar to the evolving understanding of spondyloarthritis and the diseases that term describes, the concepts of gender and sex also warrant further clarification to accurately assess their potential role in disease pathophysiology and phenotypic expression. This narrative review delves into the most recent evidence from the literature on the true prevalence of sex differences in axSpA, and the impact of sex and gender on diagnosis, disease characteristics and treatment response in this, still underserved, chronic disease.

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