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Pulmonary Artery Embolization in the Management of Hemoptysis Related to Lung Tumors.

(1) Background: Bronchial artery embolization has been shown to be effective in the management of neoplastic hemoptysis. However, knowledge of pulmonary artery embolization is lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of pulmonary artery embolization in patients presenting with hemoptysis related to lung tumors. (2) Methods: This retrospective study reviewed all consecutive patients with cancer and at least one episode of hemoptysis that required pulmonary artery embolization from December 2008 to December 2020. The endpoints of the study were technical success, clinical success, recurrence of hemoptysis and complications. (3) Results: A total of 92 patients were treated with pulmonary artery embolization (63.1 years ± 9.9; 70 men). Most patients had stage III or IV advanced disease. Pulmonary artery embolization was technically successful in 82 (89%) patients and clinically successful in 77 (84%) patients. Recurrence occurred in 49% of patients. Infectious complications occurred in 15 patients (16%). The 30-day mortality rate was 31%. At 3 years, the survival rate was 3.6%. Tumor size, tumor cavitation and necrosis and pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm were significantly associated with recurrence and higher mortality. (4) Conclusions: Pulmonary artery embolization is an effective treatment to initially control hemoptysis in patients with lung carcinoma, but the recurrence rate remains high and overall survival remains poor.

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