CAR-T Cell Therapy in the Treatment of Pediatric Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.
Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) are a group of cancers that originate in the lymphatic system, especially from progenitor or mature B-cells, T-cells, or natural killer (NK) cells. NHL is the most common hematological malignancy worldwide and also the fourth most frequent type of cancer among pediatric patients. This cancer can occur in children of any age, but it is quite rare under the age of 5 years. In recent decades, available medicines and therapies have significantly improved the prognosis of patients with this cancer. However, some cases of NHL are treatment resistant. For this reason, immunotherapy, as a more targeted and personalized treatment strategy, is becoming increasingly important in the treatment of NHL in pediatric patients. The objective of the following review is to gather the latest available research results, conducted among pediatric and/or adult patients with NHL, regarding one immunotherapy method, i.e., chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy. We focus on assessing the effectiveness of CAR-T cell therapy, which mainly targets B cell markers, CD19, CD20, and CD22, their connections with one another, sequential treatment, or connections with co-stimulatory molecules. In addition, we also evaluate the safety, aftermath (especially neurotoxicities) and limitations of CAR-T cell therapy.
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